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    NLM would like to draw our readers attention to this marvelous conference in Ohio, which will feature an unusually excellent line-up of presenters as well as two Pontifical Masses in the traditional Roman Rite.

    The Oratorian Community of Cincinnati will be hosting a Sacred Music Retreat in August of 2018. The retreat will focus on three objectives:

    1. Assisting choir members to understand the dignity, value, and spirituality inherent in being a member of a liturgical choir;

    2. Providing an opportunity to sing various master works of Catholic music and chant in a large choir setting within the liturgy;

    3. Sharing resources and music options that might be particularly helpful for smaller choirs as a take-away from the event.

    Additionally, this could be an excellent opportunity to network with peers and representatives of other parish choirs both regionally and nationally.

    The retreat will run from the afternoon of Wednesday, August 8th to the afternoon of Sunday, August 12th. In all, there are fourteen liturgies over the span of the 4 days including Matins and Lauds of the Dead; Prime; Vespers; and Compline, each on various days of the retreat. There will also be several sung Masses including a pontifical Requiem on Saturday and a pontifical Mass on Sunday. The retreat will be held on the beautiful grounds of St. Anne Retreat Center in Melbourne, KY (20 minutes from downtown Cincinnati). Retreat participants will have transportation to historic Old St. Mary’s in Over the Rhine for the Office and Mass of the Dead on Saturday and to the beautifully renovated Sacred Heart in Camp Washington for the Sunday Mass.

    The retreat center has 120 rooms, but registrations will be capped at 110 to allow for presenters and guests. Presenters include:

    · Msgr. Wadsworth – Executive Director of ICEL, well-regarded liturgist and church musician – as the spiritual director of the retreat.

    · Kevin Allen (well-known and regarded composer and conductor) as one of the two musical presenters.

    · Nick Lemme (director of music for the FSSP seminary in Nebraska) as the other musical presenter.

    · Pontifical Masses celebrated by Bp. Edward Slattery on Saturday and Sunday as mentioned above.

    Registration is $450 / person – this covers a room for all nights, all meals, participation in all rehearsals and liturgical events, all of the music and additional resources provided as part of the retreat.

    For a full schedule and application form, please contact John Schauble (

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    Our Ambrosian correspondent Nicola de’Grandi recently visited the Piedmontese city of Novara, which is currently celebrating a jubilee year in honor of its first bishop, St Gaudentius, for the 16th centenary of his death. The jubilee began on his feast day, January 22nd, and will end on the same day next year.

    The See of Novara is said to have been founded at the initiative of St Ambrose. The traditional story recounts that while he was returning from official business in nearby Vercelli, his horses refused to move past Novara, which he took as a sign that he was to stay there. It fell to Gaudentius to receive the Saint as a guest, but he felt somewhat embarrassed for the poor hospitality he had to offer. Going out into his garden, he found a large rosebush in full bloom, and an apple tree rich with fruit, even though it was the middle of the winter. In honor of this miracle, the basilica of St Gaudentius has a large chandelier suspended from the ceiling, which is covered in flowers of painted wrought-iron. Each year it is lowered for his feast day, and the flowers cleaned at the city’s expense; they are then reblessed by the bishop and put back in place.

    The basilica’s cupola, the city’s most outstanding landmark, was constructed by the architect Alessandro Antonelli from 1844 to 1876, and rises to a height of 396 feet; the statue of Christ at the top is almost 16½ feet tall.

    The church to which Antonelli added the cupola was built to replace an older church according to the design of the architect Peregrino Tebaldi, beginning in 1577, but not concluded until 1656.
    In the right transept of the basilica is the “scurolo” of St Gaudentius, where his relics were installed in 1711. The silver urn containing them seen in the next photograph is behind the grill seen here.
    The scurolo has its own dome, seen here from below.
    The main altar and sanctuary.
    The new basilica was constructed on the site of a church of the early 11th century, dedicated to the Spanish martyr St Vincent, who is extremely popular in the north of Italy. Three chapels of this church were incorporated into the new structure, and the rest of it demolished; this one, dedicated to St George, held the relics of St Gaudentius until the scurolo was completed. The frecoes by Giovanni and Luca de Campo are date from 1440-83.

    The chapel of the Good Death, seat of a confraternity founded by Bishop Carlo Bascapè in 1612, dedicated to praying for the souls of the faithful departed. The altarpiece of the Deposition from the Cross is by Gulgielmo Caccia; to the left is St Gregory the Great, who wrote a good deal about the necessity of praying for the dead, and to the right, St Odilo, the abbot of Cluny who first instituted All Souls’ Day.
    The Chapel of the Nativity, with an altarpiece of the year 1514 by local painter Gaudenzio Ferrari (1471-1546).
    A chapel dedicated to the Circumcision of Christ, with an altarpiece by the brothers Giovanni Battista and Giovanni Mauro della Rovere, known as “i Fiamminghini - the little Flemings”, since their father was born in Antwerp.
    A chapel dedicated to the Guardians Angels, with an altarpiece by Giacinto Brandi (1621-91).
    The chapel of the Madonna of Loreto.

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  • 06/06/18--05:00: The Triumph of St Norbert
  • Today is the feast of St Norbert, the founder of the Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré, who died on this day in the year 1134. Religious orders have traditionally kept a variety of secondary feasts of their major Saints, and the Premonstratensians were no exception. Since June 6th often occurs within the octaves of Pentecost or Corpus Christi, for a time it was relegated in their liturgical books to a “Commemoration” of their founder’s death, and a “Solemnity of St Norbert” was instituted on July 11th, so the feast could more conveniently be kept with an octave, as was customary for all major Patron Saints. (This was also done by the Benedictines on the same day.) There was also a feast on May 7th of the translation of his relics, which were taken in 1627 from the cathedral of his episcopal see of Magdeburg, which had turned Protestant quite early on, to Strahov Abbey in Prague, where they remain to this day.

    The shrine of St Norbert at Strahov Abbey, from this post of 2016.
    Another of these secondary feasts is called “the Triumph of St Norbert”, commemorating his defeat of a particularly bizarre heresy in the Low Countries, especially in the area of Antwerp. Norbert was a great promoter of Eucharistic devotion, one of the characteristic features of his order, well over a century before Pope Urban IV promulgated the feast of Corpus Christi. As recounted in the Premonstratensian Breviary, Tanchelm, “a most wicked man and enemy of the whole Christian faith, and of all religion”, denied any value or purpose to the Blessed Sacrament, and had somehow succeeded in convincing his fanatical followers to worship himself, and venerate his bathwater as a relic. The local clergy, unable to make any headway against the sect, consigned one of their churches to the newly founded order of canons regular; St Norbert and his brethren completely defeated the heresy solely by the force of their preaching. Faithful Catholics who had managed to hide the Sacrament and sacred vessels from profanation, keeping them hidden in some cases for several years, brought them back to St Norbert, who restored to them to the churches.

    The Citizens of Antwerp Return to St Norbert the Monstrance and Sacred Vessels They Had Hidden from Tanchelm - Cornelis de Vos, 1630
    In the early 17th century, the same Abbot of Prémontré who presided over the translation of St Norbert’s relics, Pierre Gosset, granted the celebration of this feast to the province of the Order which included the Low Countries. It was extended to the entire Order by Pope Leo XIII, and originally assigned to the 3rd Sunday after Pentecost, then moved back a day after St Pius X’s Breviary reform. The Office for this feast is identical to that of Corpus Christi, except for the lessons of the second nocturn, which recount the story of the heresy’s defeat. A commemoration of St Norbert is added to both Vespers and Lauds; at the latter, the antiphon is taken from his principal feast.

    Aña Antverpienses, Tanchelmi haeresi sacramentaria dementatos, verbo Dei sane propinato, ad fidei Catholicae communionem reduxit. - By soundly preaching the word of God, he brought the citizens of Antwerp, who had been driven mad by Tanchelm’s heresy on the Sacrament, back to the communion of the Catholic Faith.

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    We have received a good number of responses to our Corpus Christi photopost request, and will begin publishing them shortly; if you have photos you’d like to share, there’s still plenty of time to send them in. ( I want to start by highlighting a particularly beautiful procession which was held this past Sunday at the FSSP’s Roman parish, Santissima Trinità dei Pellegrini. For the past several years, the procession has gone though the local streets, and Benediction was celebrated at a very nice temporary altar set up in the next piazza over, in front of the Monte di Pietà. This year, however, the streets along the customary route are torn up for construction work, and so the opportunity was taken to change the route, and have Benediction at the church of the Brigittine Sisters in Piazza Farnese. (video below) As you can see, there was a large crowd who participated in the ceremony, and a lot of people on the street stopped to watch.

    Members of the church’s confraternity carry the processional canopy.

    Children, including some who made their First Communion on this day, strew flowers along the processional route.
    Passing by the Palazzo Spada.
    The sacristan of Santa Maria della Quercia, following an old Italian custom, waves a thurible at the door of his church as the Sacrament passes by.
    Passing through Piazza Farnese; the church of St Bridget is on the left.
    The church of St Bridget ready to receive the Sacrament for Benediction.
    The procession leaves St Brigit.
    Returning to Trinità.

    The Sacrament is carried back into the church.

    Fr John Berg, superior general of the FSSP, and Fr Jean-Cyril Sow, the pastor, with the members of the Confraternity.

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    Angelico Press, which has earned a reputation as one of the finest Catholic publishers today for its wide selection of books on traditional Catholic doctrine and worship, has just released two books that will be of great interest to NLM readers: a revised and expanded edition of the (hitherto out of print) classic by Martin Mosebach, The Heresy of Formlessness, and the English translation of a fine “primer” on the sacraments, No Trifling Matter: Taking the Sacraments Seriously Again (Italian original: Con i sacramenti non si scherza) by Msgr. Nicola Bux, a professor of sacramental theology and a close collaborator of Joseph Ratzinger/Pope Benedict XVI.

    English readers looking for a description of the content and endorsements of Bux and Mosebach will find them at the links above. Here, with the permission of the author and publisher, we reproduce the Foreword by Christopher J. Malloy of the University of Dallas, who blogs at

    Dr. Christopher J. Malloy
    An Italian priest and liturgical theologian, Msgr. Nicola Bux, has written a book on the sacraments quite popular in Italy, now available in English translation. This remarkable book is chock full of pithy insights, noble exhortations, and keen criticisms. Its unifying theme, the perennial sacramentality of the Church in the context of contemporary obstacles and difficulties, allows its scope to be quite vast and sprawling. No Trifling Matter is not intended as a textbook. Rather, its sundry edifying observations and notes of wisdom make for good reading in small portions. There is much food for thought here. The anonymous translator offers notes with helpful theological clarifications and background insight on Italian culture.

    Fr. Bux presents a thoroughly Catholic view, touching on East and West, the spiritual and the physical, the Ancient and the New, the natural and the supernatural, sin and grace, predestination and free will, Church and world. Among the dominant sub-themes is the sacred and the profane. “Sacred” means holy, dedicated to God. “Profane” has several meanings. It first signifies what lies “before” or “outside” the temple. It also signifies what is natural, not yet consecrated. Finally, it can signify what is crass, tasteless, or even opposed to God. As Bux reminds the reader, what is earthly and ordinary, but not crass, is called to be taken up and ordered to God. The Church is called to consecrate the world to God.

    This beautiful vision has been effaced from the Catholic imagination in the wake of an errant theology that obscures the distinction between sacred and profane. Under a semblance of mysticism, some (e.g., Karl Rahner, Vorgrimler, Martos) claim in various ways that the world is already sacred from the beginning. They mock a caricature of the Tradition, as though the Tradition denied that any grace exists outside of church buildings. The Tradition, including official Church doctrine, never made such a ridiculous claim. The Church teaches (a) that there are graces outside of her visible boundaries and action, (b) that such grace objectively leads back to the Catholic Church, (c) that there is no salvation outside the Catholic Church, and (d) that only those who are invincibly ignorant of this truth are not condemned for not entering the Church (while even these are deprived of many helps). In short, the Tradition has by no means a simpleton’s position.

    Having dismissed the Tradition, the revolutionaries substitute errors in its stead. Claiming that grace is already in the world, they hold that the sacraments only express this fact with correct words and gestures. Understandably, some faithful Catholics too quickly critique this notion as reducing sacraments to merely indicative “signs.” The revolutionaries have a ready response: They claim that the grace in the world “inclines” to become sacramental, “inclines” to express itself. In this way, they assert, the sacraments contain grace. They call the sacraments, thus understood, “Real Symbols.”

    In fact, the Real Symbol notion falls short of Catholic dogma. The revolutionaries are more straightforward when they describe their notion as a “Copernican revolution” in sacramental thinking. As they say, the Tradition (dogma) holds that sacraments are causes of grace, that sacraments convey grace otherwise not present. They reject this teaching. For them, the grace is already there but is in the sacramental act given the correct linguistic and gestural expression. Further, the revolutionaries have lost the sense of the supernatural and of sin and the need for repentance and sacramental grace to escape eternal damnation. If not many people are unfortunate enough to read this ruinous line of thought, many suffer in parishes because of its influence.

    For those looking for a thoughtful antidote, Bux’s book is a fine option. Bux recognizes the importance and necessity of catechesis, but he urges us to appreciate the noble work of the sacraments and not to let explanations dominate rationalistically. With the assistance of words, we should live and contemplate the signs, which point to and convey what is higher and deeper. To appreciate signs, Bux reminds us, is a basic human task. All of being is significant.

    Hand-in-hand with the loss of the sacred goes loss of the sense of God, as Bux notes with Ratzinger. Many current celebrations of Mass fail to draw the mind to God. They fail to encourage us to lay aside earthly cares and attend to the heavenly banquet. His transcendent aim obscured, man becomes the center of attention. Although Vatican II did not ask for it, the tabernacle is often banished to the outskirts, making the Blessed Sacrament “homeless.” The liturgy then becomes a field of human entertainment, not entry into the divine work.

    In addition to this macroscopic view of things, Bux also hones in on particular, pressing issues. He points out, for instance, that Vatican II did not cast Latin into a dungeon. Sadly, Latin languishes despite having many reasons to be retained. In a globalized world, Latin offers an unexpected promise of unity not yoked to any current political regime. More importantly, Latin is a spiritual treasure of the Church, part of the living Tradition of handing on the faith. A simple return to Latin is not enough, however. Even the Latin of the Ordinary Form of the Mass, Bux notes, mutes expression of such elements of the faith as the existence of the devil, the darkness of sin, etc. The Ordinary Form of baptism retains no exorcisms, only prayers of liberation. This privation is a mark of discontinuity.

    Bux also recalls the centrality of sacrifice in the Mass. Although also a banquet at the table of nourishment, the Mass is firstly a sacrifice of the altar, a sacrifice of right worship to God effective as propitiation for sins. We need to retain both aspects. Attention to the Real Presence also makes clear that the Mass is a divine work. The Eucharistic presence of Christ does not evolve gradually through the work of human hands but is achieved instantaneously by the power of Christ in heaven, working through the hierarchical priest on earth. How appropriate to ring the bells at this solemn moment!

    In order to be fit to receive the Eucharist, one must be in the state of grace. Among today’s great errors is flight from the Gospel’s exhortation, echoed at the Council, to become holy. Not everyone may receive the Eucharist, for not everyone is in the state of grace. Many people today have left a marriage and attempted to become “remarried,” without having received an official judgment from the Church that the first marriage was from its inception null. Those who have done this and are engaged in sexual relations are in a state of sin and may not receive the Eucharist. They must repent, which requires firm purpose of amendment, and receive absolution in Confession. Only false mercy would attempt to override or reinterpret these life-giving elements of divine law.

    Today’s loss of the sense of sin goes hand-in-hand with the false notion that the world is already holy. Common sense tells us this notion is false. If it is holy, why are so many so spiritually sad, so misled, so confused, so distraught? Missionaries, who don’t just think about loving others but do something about it, first exorcise new territories and then they lay their foundations. Similarly, church buildings are solemnly consecrated, set aside solely for divine use. The profane is not the sacred, although what had been profane can be consecrated and brought into the sacred. Alas, Bux cries, nowadays churches are treated as venues for mundane, even shameful events. How can the mind’s eye rise to God when the house of the holy is just another theater?

    Perhaps most timely is Bux’s chapter on marriage. He nicely treats the differing theologies of the minister of marriage in East and West. He stresses the centrality of fecundity and the complementarity of male and female in the sacrament. As Bux relates, the homosexual ideology of its essence violates sexual difference, all the while pleading in legal contexts recognition of “difference.” The argument is disingenuous because it (a) abolishes truth by demanding acceptance of error and (b) abolishes the loveliest of differences, male and female. Although respect is due to everyone as persons, human “rights” require reference to human nature and hence to God’s law.

    Not least, Bux reflects on the sacramentals. His narration of the organic development that led to building and consecrating churches is splendid. We are once again reminded of the sacred and the profane, of the natural and the supernatural. In reading, I was reminded of T.S. Eliot’s line, “You are here to kneel, where prayer has been valid.” Use of the sacred space for profane events, even if these be tolerable in themselves, is a “very serious phenomenon,” even a “desolation.” Similarly, the cavalier way priests carry on at Mass, with gym shoes and jokes, high fives, calling for applause, etc., represents “not a sacred order, but a profane and secularized disorder.”

    This book would make a fine gift for a priest who has an open mind to a call to return to the beauty and truth of Tradition. It might be seen as a bridge, inviting one to contemplate the disorders of today’s liturgical experiences as reason to reconsider the timeless wisdom of the Church. Practicing lay Catholics without theological training will also enjoy it. May it be widely read!

    The Angelico page for this book is here; the page is here.

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    Some of the oldest Roman octaves, such as those of Ss Peter and Paul and St Lawrence, have a Mass on the octave day itself which is different or partly different from that of the main feast; Peter and Paul also have another Mass for the days within the octave. However, by the time the feast of Corpus Christi was promulgated in the mid-13th century, this custom was no longer being developed for new celebrations, and the Mass of the feast was simply repeated though the octave. As I noted recently, the neo-Gallican Parisian Missal of 1738 added a proper Epistle and Gospel for each day within the octave of Corpus Christi, a development which by the standards of its time was certainly an innovation, but one in keeping with tradition. This Missal also contains a special Mass for the octave day, which is for the most part quite well composed from a literary point of view.

    The Mass of the Octave of Corpus Christi, from the 1738 Parisian Missal
    The introit is taken from the book of the Prophet Malachi (1, 11), a text which was already understood to be a reference to the Eucharistic sacrifice by St Justin Martyr in the mid-2nd century.

    Introitus Ab ortu solis usque ad occasum, magnum est nomen meum in gentibus, et in omni loco sacrificatur et offertur nomini meo oblatio munda, quia magnum est nomen meum in gentibus, dicit Dominus exercituum. Ps. 49 Deus deorum Dominus locutus est, et vocavit terram a solis ortu usque ad occasum. Gloria Patri. Ab ortu solis.

    Introit From the rising of the sun even to the going down, my name is great among the gentiles, and in every place there is sacrifice, and there is offered to my name a clean oblation: for my name is great among the Gentiles, saith the Lord of hosts. Ps. 49 The God of gods, the Lord hath spoken: and he hath called the earth from the rising of the sun, to the going down thereof. Glory be. From the rising.

    The Collect is taken from an ancient Sacramentary of the Gallican Rite.

    Oratio Deus, qui magno misericordiae tuae munere, docuisti nos redemptionis nostrae sacrificium celebrare, sicut óbtulit Póntifex noster Jesus Chrifius in terris: da nobis, quaesumus, ut sanctifìcati per oblatiónem Córporis et Sanguinis ejus, cum ipso mereamur in sempiternum consummari; Qui tecum.

    Prayer God, who by the great gift of Thy mercy, taught us to celebrate the sacrifice of our redemption, as our priest Jesus Christ offered (it) upon the earth: grant us, we ask, that sanctified by the offering of His Body and Blood, we may merit to be perfected for ever with Him who liveth and reigneth...

    The neo-Gallican revisers were very fond of creating themes in the liturgy, and this Mass is no -exception. The Epistle, Hebrews 7, 18-28, continues the thought of the Introit and Collect on the universal priestly offering of Christ. This passage is perhaps also chosen for Corpus Christi as a deliberate rebuke or challenge to the Calvinists, who often cited the words of verse 27 “Who needeth not daily (as the other priests) to offer sacrifices first for his own sins, and then for the people’s, for this He did once, in offering Himself”, against the Catholic doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass.

    The Gradual joins the line of Psalm 109 quoted above by St Paul with the figure of Melchisedech, whose appearance in the book of Genesis (14, 17-20) is read as the Epistle on Friday within the Octave.

    Graduale Melchisedech rex Salem, protulit panem et vinum, erat enim sacerdos Dei altissimi. V. Juravit Dominus, et non poenitebit eum: Tu es sacerdos in aeternum secundum ordinem Melchisedech.

    Graduale Melchisedech, the king of Salem, brought forth bread and wine, for he was the priest of the most high God. V. The Lord hath sworn, and he will not repent: Thou art a priest for ever according to the order of Melchisedech.

    The Offerings of Abel and Melchisedech, mosaic from the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna, 526-547 AD. (Image from Wikipedia by Roger Culos - CC BY-SA 3.0)
    The Alleluia is also taken from the Epistle to the Hebrews (9, 26), after which the St Thomas’ Sequence Lauda, Sion is said as on the feast day.

    Alleluia, alleluia. Christus in consummatione saeculorum, ad destitutionem peccati, per hostiam suam apparuit, alleluia. – Alleluia, alleluia. Christ at the end of ages hath appeared for the destruction of sin, by the sacrifice of Himself, alleluia.

    The Gospel, John 6, 58-70, is the fourth of a series of readings chosen to give a broader selection from the Eucharistic discourse of that chapter than the four verses (56-59) originally provided by St Thomas’ version of the Mass. (Monday, verses 27-35; Tuesday, 41-44; Wednesday, 51-55.) The neo-Gallican revisers, like most “right-thinking” liturgists, were painfully obsessed with making the liturgy more Scriptural and more didactic; the results of their tinkering are often comically inept, as for example, in the damage which they did to St Thomas’ Office of Corpus Christi. Here, however, they have shown a commendable respect for the original tradition, while at the same time building from it, an example which the modern revisers of the lectionary might profitably have heeded.

    The Offertory is taken from the First Epistle of St Peter, 2, 4-5.

    Offertorium Ad Christum accedentes lapidem vivum, et ipsi tamquam lapides vivi superaedificamini, domus spiritualis, sacerdotium sanctum, offerre spirituales hostias, acceptabiles Deo per Jesum Christum, alleluia.

    Offertory Coming unto Christ, as to a living stone, be you also as living stones built up, a spiritual house, a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ, alleluia.

    The first part of the Secret (up to the asterisk) is taken from a very ancient prayer found in the Gelasian and Gregorian Sacramentaries; in the latter, as in the Missal of St Pius V, it is assigned to the Seventh Sunday after Pentecost. (The Latin version of this prayer, moved to the 16th Sunday of Ordinary Time, somehow managed to survive the Consilium intact; the 1973 ICEL version of it was one of its most grotesque features, as Fr Zuhlsdorf notes here in this very useful commentary.) The second part was composed specifically for this Mass.

    Secreta Deus, qui legalium differentias hostiarum unius sacrificii perfectione sanxisti: accipe sacrificium a devotis tibi famulis; et pari benedictione, sicut munera Abel, sanctifica; ut * Christo sacerdoti et victimae per fidem adunati, nosmetipsos tibi hostiam viventem, sanctam, et beneplacentem exhibere valeamus. Per eundem...

    Secret O God, who by the perfection of the one sacrifice didst ratified variety of offerings prescribed by the Law; receive (this) sacrifice from the servants devoted to Thee, and sanctify it by a blessing (as Thou did with) the gifts of Abel; so that * we, united by faith to Christ, who is priest and victim, may be able to offer to Thee ourselves, as a living, holy and well-pleasing sacrifice. Through the same...

    The Secret “Deus qui legalium” in the Echternach Sacramentary, 895AD. (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Département des manuscrits, Latin 9433) In the Gelasian Sacramentary, it appears in the third of sixteen Masses under the heading “for Sundays”, without further qualifications. Later sacramentaries would reorganize the material in the Gelasian in broadly similar, but not identical ways; in the Echternach, it is assigned to the Ninth Sunday after Pentecost, rather than the Seventh.
    The Communion antiphon is taken from 1 Corinthians 11, 24-25, an unusual (for neo-Gallicans) example of a partial and inexact quotation.

    Communio Hoc corpus quod pro vobis tradetur: hic calix novi testamenti еst in meo sanguine, dicit Dóminus: hoc facite, quotiescumque sumitis, in meam commemoratiónem.

    Communion This (is the) body, which shall be delivered for you: this chalice is the new testament in my blood: do ye this, as often as you shall receive it, for the commemoration of me.

    The Postcommunion is a new composition, which cites the idea of the Communion antiphon, again keeping to a theme.

    Postcommunio Domine Jesu Christe, qui corpus et sanguinem tuum esse voluisti humanae salutis pretium, Ecclesiae tuae sacrificium, et nostrae infirmitatis alimentum; praesta, quaesumus, ut haec sancta, quae in tui commemorationem nos súmere praecepisti, sempiternam nobis redemptiónem operentur. Qui vivis.

    Postcommunio Lord Jesus Christ, who willed that Thy Body and Blood be the price of man’s salvation, Thy Church’s sacrifice, and the nourishment of our weakness; grant, we ask, that these holy things, which Thou didst command us to receive in commemoration of Thee, may effect for us everlasting redemption. Who livest.

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    Our first Corpus Christi photopost of this year has a good variety of things, some from new contributors, including our first ever from Tunisia, some from regulars; also, the Premonstratensian Mass, and a new priest’s first Mass. We are very glad to continue receiving your photos (; as it stands now, we will definitely have at least two more post, possibly three. (I’ll be doing some traveling in the next few days, so they might be a little slow in coming.) Evangelize though beauty!

    Bl. Charles de Foucault Monastery - La Marsa, Tunisia
    Institute of the Incarnate Word

    Ss Peter and Paul - Wilmington, California
    Mass in the Premonstratensian Rite, celebrated by the fathers of St Michael’s Abbey in Silverado. At the first “Dominus vobiscum”, the deacon kneels and elevates the front of the priest’s chasuble, as seen here. In The Liturgies of the Religious Orders, Archdale King writes that this was also done by the Cistercians and in some local Uses, but that the custom was in his time (1955) “very generally disregarded.”  
    The deacon presents the paten to the priest at “Sursum corda.”

    Holy Innocents - New York City
    First Mass of Fr Leo Camurati, O.P.

    Cathedral Chapel of Ss Peter and Paul - Tyler, Texas

    Tradition will always be for the young!

    St Thomas - Ann Arbor, Michigan
    (Photos by Aaron Harburg)

    St Gianna Beretta Molla - Northfield, New Jersey

    St Michael the Archangel - Bacoor, Cavite, Philippine Islands

    St John the Baptist - Allentown, New Jersey

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    The church of the Sacred Heart in Springfield, Illinois, will welcome His Excellency Thomas Paprocki, Bishop of Springfield, for a Solemn Pontifical High Mass at the Throne on the church’s patronal feast. The Mass will begin at 7pm CST; the church is located at 730 S 12th Street.

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    Consider thou also, o man that art redeemed, Who it is that hangeth for Thee upon the Cross, how great He is and what is His nature, Whose death giveth life to the dead, at whose passing both heaven and earth mourn, and the very stones are cloven as if it were in their nature to suffer. O for the heart of man, that art harder than the hardness of any stone, if at the memory of so great an atonement thou art not struck with terror, nor moved to compassion, nor rent unto remorse, not softened with devotion!

    The Crucifixion, by Taddeo Gaddi, ca 1360; from the Sacristy of the church of the Holy Cross in Florence.
    Moreover, that the Church might be formed from the side of Christ as He slept, and the Scripture fullfilled that saith, “They shall look upon Him that they pierced,” it was granted by a divine command that one of the soldiers should pierce the side of that holy body, so that, as blood came forth with water, the price of our salvation might be poured forth. And so this blood, being shed from this hidden source, namely, His Heart, might give to the Sacraments of the Church their power to confer the life of grace, and for those that now live in Christ, be the drought of the living fountain that spingeth up unto eternal life. (From St Bonaventure’s Book on the Tree of Life; the second part of this is the read in the third Nocturn of the Office of the Sacred Heart promulgated by Pope Pius XI in 1928.)

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    The photos which you send in for these posts are published more or less in the order in which they are received, so it just happens to work out this way, that after having pictures from three continents yesterday, and Europe the day before, today’s are all from the United States. Personally, I find this an especially encouraging sign; I grew up in the most Catholic state in the Union, Rhode Island, but never even saw a Corpus Christ procession until I visited Rome for the first time in 1995. The times they are a changin’!

    Old St Patrick’s Oratory - Kansas City, Missouri (ICKSP)

    St Anthony of Padua - Des Moines, Iowa

     St Mary’s Parish - Kalamazoo, Michigan

     St Norbert’s - Roxbury, Wisconsin
    Pontifical Mass celebrated by His Excellency Robert Morlino, Bishop of Madison (Courtesy of Fr Z.)

    St Joseph - Troy, New York

    Cathedral of St Joseph - Burlington, Vermont

    St Catherine of Siena - Columbus, Ohio

    Sacred Heart - Albany, New York

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    NLM readers may be interested to hear of this reprint of a classic long out of print.

    From the first centuries of its existence, the Church has interpreted the historical events recounted in the Old Testament as being "types" or "figures" of the events of the New Testament and of the sacraments instituted by Jesus Christ. In fact, the traditional Latin liturgy was born from this intimate connection of ancient temple sacrifice and incarnational fulfillment.

    Jean Cardinal Danielou, one of the foremost Catholic scholars of the twentieth century, and a theologian especially concerned with the relationship between history and the Christian revelation, examines in this excellent book -- now reprinted in a nice new edition by Ex Fontibus -- the typological interpretation of the Fathers of the Church and their contemporaries during the first three centuries of the Christian era. Among examples he discusses are the crossing of the Jordan by the Israelites as a type of baptism, Rahab as a type of the Church, and the fall of Jericho as a figure of the end of the world. The complex interpretations of Adam, the flood, and the sacrifice and marriage of Isaac are also described in full and commented on.

    The work is divided into five books entitled "Adam in Paradise," "Noah and the Flood," "The Sacrifice of Isaac," "Moses and the Exodus," and "The Cycle of Joshua". Each book is divided into chapters discussing the various types and the interpretations of Irenaeus, Clement, Gregory of Nyssa and their contemporaries, including Philo.

    Link to this book at Amazon.

    Link to the page at the publisher, Ex Fontibus Company.

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    The Gospel being read in French, versus populum, at the Solemn Pontifical Mass
    Over the past twenty-five years, I have assisted at traditional Latin Masses in many states and countries. What I have seen has largely been edifying: clergy who love the liturgy, offering it in accord with its Roman spirit and the appropriate rubrics, and faithful who are grateful to have access to this powerhouse of sanctity.

    But there are some shadows as well.

    A friend shared with me the video of the traditional Pontifical Mass celebrated by Robert Cardinal Sarah in Chartres cathedral. It was going along magnificently, as one would have every reason to expect from this crown jewel of the Latin liturgy — until we reach the Lesson and the Gospel (the Epistle may be found at the 1:08:50 mark, the Gospel at 1:17:40, of the above video). At this point, the subdeacon faced the people rather than the East, chanted only the title of the reading in Latin, and proceeded to speak aloud a French translation. The Latin reading was never chanted ad orientem in its ancient and thrilling tone. Then along came the deacon, and instead of chanting the Gospel in Latin facing northwards, he again faced the people, and after singing the title, proceeding to read the Gospel in French.

    This practice is contrary both to the spirit of the ancient Roman liturgy and to the rubrics that govern its celebration. Most recently, in 2011, the Instruction Universae Ecclesiaeof the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei states:
    26. As foreseen by article 6 of the Motu Proprio Summorum Pontificum, the readings of the Holy Mass of the Missal of 1962 can be proclaimed either solely in the Latin language, or in Latin followed by the vernacular or, in Low Masses, solely in the vernacular.
    Only in a Low Mass, therefore, is it permitted to substitute vernacular readings for Latin — and note, it is permitted, not required or recommended. In fact, it is always better practice to read the lessons in Latin first, and then read them in the vernacular from the pulpit if it is judged pastorally wise. But at a High Mass, a fortiori a Solemn High Mass, a fortiori a Pontifical Mass, the readings are always to be sung in Latin, with the correct ceremonial and orientation. What we saw in the Chartres Mass is a liturgical abuse, no different in kind from the host of abuses with which the Novus Ordo is plagued.

    This violation of rubrics was no doubt intended as a “pastoral adaptation” or “accommodation.” Nevertheless, it is an example of exactly what we must be careful not to do. Many of the worst aberrations and deviations in the 1960s, when the old Mass was already being subjected to torture and dismemberment, and subsequently the ruinous missal of Paul VI, arose exactly from such supposedly “pastoral considerations.” Fr. Louis Bouyer, who worked at the Bugninian abattoir before regretting his complicity, already caught the whiff of a weird pastoralism in the 1950s. For Bouyer, liturgy is first of all
    a given, a traditional given. From a material point of view it is a precisely circumscribed object: the whole of the rites and ceremonies, of readings and prayers that are written down in the books called the Missal, the Breviary, and the Ritual. It is something we can desire to enrich, as every living Christian generation enriches Christian spirituality, Christian morals, even dogma; but it is something that has first to be received, received from the Church.[1]
    A major difference between the theology of the classical Roman Rite and that of Paul VI’s modern rite is the difference in how lections are understood. The lections at Mass are not merely instructional or didactic. They are an integral part of the seamless act of worship offered to God in the Holy Sacrifice. The clergy chant the divine words in the presence of their Author as part of the logike latreia, the rational worship, we owe to our Creator and Redeemer. These words are a making-present of the covenant with God, an enactment of their meaning in the sacramental context for which they were intended, a grateful and humble recitation in the sight of God of the truths He has spoken and the good things He has promised (in keeping with Scripture’s manner of praying to God: “Remember, Lord, the promises you have spoken!”), and a form of verbal incense by which we raise our hands to His commandments, as the great Offertory chant has it: “Meditabor in mandatis tuis, quae dilexi valde: et levabo manus meas ad mandata tua, quae dilexi.”

    The chanted Latin lection is an expression of adoring love directed to God before it is a communication of knowledge to the people, and the form in which it is done should reflect this primacy. In the ancient liturgy, always and everywhere God enjoys primacy. Nothing is done “simply” for the people. Holy Communion, which is clearly for the benefit of the people, is treated with adoration, reverence, care, and attentive love, being distributed exclusively by the anointed hands of the ordained, on the tongues of the kneeling faithful, with a paten held underneath, and, perhaps, a houseling cloth. All eyes are thus fixed on the Eucharistic Lord, giving Him the primacy that is His due. It should be no different with the utterance of the divine words, in which we find a symbolic incarnation of the Word of God which nourishes our souls in preparation for the divine banquet of the Most Holy Sacrament.[2]

    Vernacularization and recitation of the lessons at High Mass betrays the rationalism and utilitarianism of the Synod of Pistoia. The chanting of the Word of God is not just for instruction but also a quasi-sacramental action in and of itself (as Martin Mosebach argues with regard to the use of incense, candles, and the prayer “Per evangelica dicta, deleantur nostra delicta”).[3] It is part of the activity of worship, and like the other prayers of the Mass, it should be set apart by words of a sacral register, hallowed by tradition. No one will complain if this formal liturgical chant, which takes only a few minutes in any case, is followed up with a recitation of the vernacular texts before the homily. But the latter should never be substituted for the former.

    I have learned about priests in France and Germany who, in keeping with this cavalier pastoral attitude, also change the “Ecce Agnus Dei” and “Domine non sum dignus” into the vernacular. Seriously: has it ever really caused difficulty for the faithful to understand what is meant by these phrases, which are repeated at every Holy Mass? Additionally, some clergy in Germany, who have apparently learned nothing from the past fifty years, persist in recycling the old saccharine Schubert Masses and other German paraphrases, which they fob off on the people instead of sharing with them the riches of Gregorian chant, as every Pope has urged from 1903 to 2013.[4]

    Then there are practical concerns, those stubborn little things known as facts. Congregations who attend the usus antiquior today are often made up of faithful of diverse linguistic backgrounds, because in many locales only a single Latin Mass is available, and all the people of the surrounding territory gather for it. I was recently visiting St. Clement’s in Ottawa, in which about 40% of the faithful are Francophone and 60% are Anglophone. Latin is the common liturgical language that unites them. In the United States, when Hispanic Catholics attend a Latin Mass, the Latin is closer to their native tongue than English. In another city parish of which I am aware, there are families who speak English, Romanian, Polish, Russian, Czech, Italian, and Spanish. Quite apart from fidelity to the rubrics, such situations present a genuine“pastoral” reason for the consistent use of Latin!

    In this respect, the Chartres Mass afforded us a spectacular lack of pastoral common sense. This is an international pilgrimage of people for whom French is certainly not a common language. To read the lessons only in French reveals a nationalist, regionalist, and culturally imperialist attitude. As Pope John XXIII noted in Veterum Sapientia, only the use of the venerable and universal Latin tongue is exempt from such problems.

    It would be opportune for the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, as well as religious congregations and societies of apostolic life that utilize the usus antiquior, to monitor such liturgical abuses and correct them before they spread. How can clergy expect the faithful to show due obedience to their fathers in Christ, if these same fathers are not faithful to the inherited liturgy? Is it too much to ask that priests follow the spirit and the letter of the Roman Rite as it has been passed down to us, without introducing the deviations and creative adaptations of the Liturgical Movement? We have seen where those ended up: the Novus Ordo.

    The faithful deserve and have a right to a traditional Mass offered in accordance with the wise slogan “Say the Black, Do the Red.” After decades of confusion, the Church is being given an unparalleled opportunity to restart the celebration of the liturgy with a correct attitude and praxis. If we mess it up this time with short-sighted pastoral adaptations, we will have no one to blame but ourselves when we slide into a second liturgical reform, from which Divine Providence may not rescue us.

    [1] “Après les journées de Vanves. Quelques mises au point sur le sens et le rôle de la Liturgie,” in Études de pastorale (Paris: Cerf, 1944 and Lyon: Abeille, 1944), 383, cited in John Pepino, “Cassandra’s Curse: Louis Bouyer, the Liturgical Movement, and the Post-Conciliar Reform of the Mass,” Antiphon 18.3 (2014): 254–300, on 270.

    [2] For a more extensive treatment of the topic, see my article “In Defense of Preserving Readings in Latin.”

    [3] Another confirmation of this thesis is found in the traditional rite for the ordination of deacons, as a commenter at Fr. Zuhlsdorf noted (and here I quote):
    After the bishop vests the new deacon in the stole and dalmatic, he presents the Gospel book and says: “Accipe potestatem legendi Evangelium in Ecclesia Dei, tam pro vivis, quam pro defunctis. In nomine Domini.” “Receive the power of reading the Gospel in the Church of God, both for the living and for the dead. In the name of the Lord.” The part about reading the Gospel for the dead would be nonsense if the reading were merely a practical instruction for those members of the Church Militant who happen to be present at a particular Mass. (The rite for subdeacons has a similar formula withe the Book of Epistles, with reference to power to read them both for the living and the dead.)
    [4] I would not necessarily object to vernacular hymns being sung at a High Mass, provided that the Gregorian Ordinary and Propers were sung first, and the hymn functioned as a kind of popular motet. But to supplant what is liturgical with what is non-liturgical is Protestant, not Catholic or Orthodox.

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    Now a community can chant the Office in unison from their smartphones!

    I was excited recently to hear that the website now has an option to have the psalms of the Divine Office pointed for chanting. This allows people to chant them in community or congregation in unison. The psalm tones which can be applied to these are those that are given on this site, on the Psalm Tones page; they are adapted from the traditional Gregorian tones.

    The points (the marks over certain syllables) coincide with the naturally emphasized syllables of speech, and so are intuitive and natural to use.

    The psalm tones on my website make use of the final two points in each line and are simple to use. Scores for the tones can be downloaded, and there is an instructional video along with materials explaining how to use them. All the materials on this site are free, but for those who would like greater help, I have created an online course teaching you how to sing them from the traditional chant notation at www.Pontifex.University, which costs $95 for several hours of tuition.

    The pointed psalms are available on the app, which can be downloaded from iTunes or Google Play.

    When you get it on your smartphone, the screen will look like this:
    Martin Kochanski, the editor of Universalis, explained the procedure to me. “When you use with the app, there ought to be a grey box mentioning the pointing just below the first psalm on this page: in that case, just tap on it and say Yes, you want the pointing. If for any reason the box isn’t there, then
    1. Tap on the screen to get the toolbar to appear.
    2. Tap on the cogwheel to open the Settings screen.
    3. In the Liturgy of the Hours section of that screen, turn on the option ‘Show chant marks.’

    The tones I have created conform to the pattern of language, rather than imposing their own rhythm on the words. This means that once you understand how the system works, which is pretty simple, they flow naturally, and it frees you to contemplate the text more deeply.

    Also, with this system, any psalm tone can be sung to any psalm, so once you know even just one, you can sing the whole psalter.

    These tones are arranged so that any tone can be applied to any text, and they always follow the natural rhythm of the words of the text. The system is so simple that you don’t need a deep musical training - if you can sing it, you can teach others to sing it. This means that in just a few minutes, you could have a completely fresh group able to learn a tone and sing a whole Office together.

    Furthermore, because the system of matching tone to text is so natural, it makes it easy to compose new tones. I was motivated to create these because I was struggling to find any that I was happy with, and realized that there was no reason that I couldn’t do it at least as badly as anyone else. So, if you don’t like mine, compose your own. I would love to see someone doing better than me and the more people composing the better, for the best will rise to the surface, so to speak, and catch on. This way we will have a living, organic tradition!

    I would love to see the Coverdale Psalms of the Anglican Ordinariate Psalter pointed in this way too. I am currently going through a Google Doc file of all 150 psalms and pointing them, and I hope to have that available later this year (it is quite time-consuming to do it, as you can imagine). If so, I may publish it myself with Way of Beauty press (which published my latest book The Vision for You - How to Discover the Life You Were Made For).

    In the meantime, perhaps or another site that offers the Anglican Use Office might consider doing the same. I understand that the simple reason that Mr. Kochanski did this on Universalis was that someone wrote and asked!
    St Benedict of Nursia introduces an early medieval mechanical smartphone to the community at Norcia

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    Our Corpus Christi photopost series continues with pictures from England, France and the United States, a video from Norway, and two churches of the Ordinariate Use, inter alia. Thank you once again to everyone who sent these in. (I am back from my trip, and should be able to finish up the series within the week.) Evanglize through beauty!

    Collegiate Church of St Just - Lyon, France (FSSP)
    Tradition will always be for the young!

    St Clement - Ottawa, Ontario (FSSP)
    Pontifical Mass celebrated by HE Terrence Prendergast, Archbishop of Ottawa, as part of the parish’s 50th anniversary celebration.

    St Joseph Oratory - Detroit, Michigan (ICKSP)
    Mass and Procession on the feast day, celebrated by the Superior General of the Institute, Mons. Gilles Wach.

    Mass and Procession on the external solemnity

    Vår Frue Kirke (Church of Our Lady) - Ålesund, Norway
    Mass in Gmajor by Franz Schubert, with organ transcription by Michael Gerisch; Oculi omnium by Charles Wood (1866-1926); Lauda Sion by Francisco Correa (1584-1654); Cantate Domino by Giuseppe Pitoni (1657-1743); Toccata fra 5 sinfoni by Charles-Marie Widor (1844-1937).
    St Bede the Venerable - St Louis Park, Minnesota
    Ordinariate parish hosted by the church of the Holy Family

    The Gospel sung in the church’s nave.

    Shrine of Christ the King - Chicago, Illinois (ICKSP)

    London, England
    Procession from Our Lady of the Assumption and St Gregory to St James’ Spanish Place

    Mt Calvary - Baltimore, Maryland (Ordinariate)

    Pontifical Shrine of Our Lady of Mt Carmel - New York City

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  • 06/13/18--05:00: Solemn Vows in Norcia
  • This past Friday, on the feast of the Sacred Heart, Br Augustine Wilmeth, who hails from South Carolina, made his solemn vows as a member of the Benedictine Monks of Norcia, promising to live as a monk until the day of his death. Family and friends from the United States and Italy were present for the ceremony, which took place while a thunderstorm added its voice to the chants and ritual. (Photos reproduced with permission from the monks’ most recent newsletter; click here to subscribe though their website.)
    Here we see a beautiful custom which formed part of the rite of religious profession among many different religious orders: the newly professed prostrates himself before the altar, and a black funeral pall is laid over him, symbolizing his death to the world, that he may rise in Christ.

    After the ceremony, despite the rain, students from the juggling troupe of St Gregory the Great Academy, who had stopped in Norcia during their annual pilgrimage to Rome, performed for the monks and their guests.

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    The church of the Holy Rosary in the Bronx, New York, will have an EF Mass on Sunday, June 24th, the feast of the Nativity of St John the Baptist, with music by Gounod and Victoria; the celebrant will be His Excellency James Massa, Auxiliary Bishop of Brooklyn. The Mass will begin at 1 pm; the church is located 1510 Adee Avenue. See for more information.

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    English-speaking Catholics today perhaps think of Anthony of Padua principally as the Saint to call upon when something is lost, for which there is a well-known rhyme, “St Anthony, St Anthony, please come down: something is lost and cannot be found.” In his own lifetime, however, and for centuries after, he was principally known for his extraordinary learning and skill as a preacher; he was the first Franciscan to study at a university and teach.

    Ss Anthony and Francis, depicted by Simone Martini in the Chapel of St Martini in the lower basilica of St Francis in Assisi, 1322-26. Note that in this earlier stage of Franiscan iconography, St Anthony’s charactistic feature is the book of a scholar. (Public domainimage from Wikpedia.)
    He was also known for a variety of highly spectacular miracles. The 39th chapter of The Little Flowers of St Francis tells the story of how he preached before the Pope and cardinals in consistory, and was understood by them all,
    Greeks, Italians, French, Germans, Slavs and English, and other languages… as if he had spoken in their own languages … and it seemed that that ancient miracle of the Apostles at the time of Pentecost was renewed, when they spoke by the power of the Holy Spirit in every tongue. And they said to each other with admiration, “Is this man who preaches not a Spaniard? And how do we all hear our own language as he speaks?”
    By an interesting coincidence, his feast day is also the last day on which Pentecost can occur. He was canonized within a year of his death by the Pope in whose presence this miracle took place, Gregory IX (1227-41), who also referred to him publicly as “the ark of the covenant, and the treasure-chest of the Divine Scriptures.” At the ceremony of his canonization, Pope Gregory intoned in his honor the Magnificat antiphon for Doctors of the Church, “O Doctor Optime”, a title which was formally confirmed in 1946 by Pope Pius XII.

    The common representation of Anthony as a young man tenderly holding the Christ Child perhaps makes it easy to forget that he was also called “the hammer of the heretics”, who were many in his time. Like his contemporary St Dominic, he preached in a wide field in northern Italy and southern France against the bizarre heresy of the Cathars. When he was still a young canon regular in Coimbra, Portugal, Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) had called the Fourth Council of the Lateran, which also had a good deal to say on the subject of heresy. This was famously the first ecumenical council to enshrine the use of the term “transubstantiation” as a way of describing the change of bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ in the Mass, a response to a variety of erroneous teachings on the Eucharist.

    “There is indeed one universal church of the faithful, outside of which nobody at all is saved, in which Jesus Christ Himself is both priest and sacrifice. His body and blood are truly contained in the sacrament of the altar under the forms of bread and wine, the bread and wine having been changed (transsubstantiatis) in substance, by God’s power, into his body and blood, … And indeed, nobody can confect this sacrament except a priest who has been properly ordained according to the (power of the) Church’s keys, which Jesus Christ himself gave to the Apostles and their successors.” (Canon 1 ‘on the Catholic Faith’)

    The Miracle of the Mule, by Joseph Heintz the Younger (1600-78), from the Chapel of St Pius V in the Domincan Order’s basilica of Ss John and Paul in Venice.
    When St Anthony was in Rimini in the year 1223, a heretic named Bonovillo challenged him to prove the doctrine of the Real Presence in the following manner. The man would lock his mule in its stall for three days without giving it any food, then bring it into a public square where there would plenty of hay be ready for it. At the same time, St Anthony would show the consecrated Host to the mule; if it would then ignore the hay and kneel, its owner would convert to the Catholic Faith. On the appointed day, St Anthony celebrated Mass, then brought the Host in procession to the piazza. On arriving, he said to the mule “By the power and in the name of the Creator, Whom I, for all that I am unworthy, truly hold in my hands, I say to thee, animal, and order thee to come near at once in humility, and show Him proper veneration.” At this, the mule immediately left the hay, approached and knelt, for the sake of which miracle the heretic Bonovillo did indeed convert. In Rimini, in the Piazza of the Three Martyrs, there is a small chapel known as the “Tempietto – little temple”, which marks the place where this miracle happened.

    The event has also been represented in art many times, such as the painting above. From 1446-53, the sculptor Donatello was in Padua to do a new high altar for the great basilica which houses St Anthony’s relics, with four relief panels of his miracles, and seven free-standing bronze sculpture of Saints. The miracle of the mule is one of the four. (Click to enlarge.)

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    We are grateful to our friends at Canticum Salomonis for their kind permission to publish here on NLM their recent translation, the first ever in English, of part of an important 15th-century liturgical treatise. This treatise offers an interesting critique of the Franciscan influence on the liturgy of the Roman Church, particularly in regards to the Missal and Breviary of the Roman Curia which they adopted, and which are the principal late-medieval source of the Missal and Breviary of St Pius V. 

    Radulphus of Rivo (d. 1403) was a Dutch jurist, liturgist, historian, and dean of the chapter of Tongres cathedral, whose several works on the liturgy are of primary importance for understanding the development of the Missal and Breviary.

    His work De Canonum Observantia examines the sources of liturgical authority – Scripture, tradition, canons, papal decretals, etc. – and describes how the Mass and Office should be celebrated in accordance with them.

    In Proposition XXII, which appears here in English for the first time, he harshly criticises the Franciscan breviary compiled by Haymo of Faversham for departing from the traditional Roman order while claiming to be its only true representative. The piece raises interesting questions about the nature of Rome’s liturgical primacy.

    The frontispiece of a Roman Missal printed in Venice in 1520. Although it is not stated here explicitly that it was made for the Franciscans, this is clearly indicated by the fact that some of the Order’s canonized Saints are listed with octaves in the calendar.
    Proposition XXII [1]

    The Ordo of the Holy Roman Church is to be gathered not from the practices of the Friars Minor but from the canons, the authentic Scriptures, our ancient books, and the general practice of each particular church.

    (1) Introduction

    So glorious and famous was the Roman Church of old, that living waters gushed up from beneath her feet, and from her rose, as from the source of a stream, examples for the doing of all things, and sure rules of ecclesiastical government. Hence it is that all the Scriptures enjoin us to follow her authority and hold fast to her order (ordinem). As the most blessed Pope Innocent says to the Bishop Decentius (in his letter to the church of Maguelone, cited earlier in Proposition VII, dist. xi):

    “For there is no man who does not know and acknowledge that what has been handed down to the Roman Church from Peter the Prince of the Apostles and is conserved there faithfully even now is something that must be observed by everyone, and that nothing should be added or introduced that does not have its authority from her or seems to take its example from elsewhere. This is all the more obvious since throughout all of Italy, the Gauls, the Spains, Africa, and Sicily, and the islands lying in between, no church has been founded that was not established by the venerable Apostle Peter or his priestly successors. Let them read, and let them tell me whether they find that another Apostle has been their founder in these provinces. But if they have not read it, because indeed it is nowhere to be found, then they are obliged to obey what the Roman Church has conserved, from whom it is certain that they have taken their beginnings: lest while they lend too eager an ear to foreign ideas, they might forget the instruction of their head.”

    Consider also the material under the third proposition above.

    But in what pertains to the Divine Office, today there is a widespread belief and opinion that the Friars Minor are the only ones who observe the order of the Holy Roman Church, which (they claim) is contained in none other but in their own Breviaries and books. Why? Because in their Rule Bl. Francis prescribed that the clergy should perform the Divine Office according to the Roman order wherever they are able to obtain the Breviaries.

    During my stay in Rome, I learned that the truth is quite to the contrary. In fact, when the Roman Pontiffs resided at the Lateran, they observed a less complete form of the Roman Office than what was observed in the other collegiate churches of the city. Moreover, the chapel clergy, whether by papal mandate or on their own authority, always abbreviated the Roman Office and often altered it, according as it suited the Lord Pope and the Cardinals to observe it. [2] I also had the opportunity to study an Ordinary of this Office compiled during the time of Innocent III. [3] It is this abbreviated office that the Friars Minor follow. This is the reason why they give their breviaries and office books the sub-title “following the custom of the Roman Curia” (secundum consuetudinem Romanae Curiae), but they have taken no pains to receive and observe the customs of the other churches of the city of Rome. Now if the Chapel Office in question really can be called the ORDO of the Holy Roman Church, then they have done what the rule prescribed. If not, they have not.

    Several nations of the Roman world have their books and office directly from the Roman churches and not from the Papal Chapel. This can be easily inferred from the books and treatises of Amalarius, Walafrid, Micrologus, Gemma Animae, and other writers on the Divine Office. [4]

    Having said all of this by way of introduction, let us proceed to examine who is closer in their Divine Office to the order of the Holy Roman Church: whether the Friars in question, who keep a rather singular liturgical use along with their rather singular rule, or the other nations and religious orders. Either truly or falsely, I claim that the use of the Friars Minor is further from the true Roman order when it follows the chapel office in question, as may be deduced in the following way:

    (2) Thesis

    According to St Augustine (De Civitate Dei 19, 13), an ordo is the disposition of equal and unequal things each in their proper place; and in De Ordine Rerum, II, he says that ordo is that by which all the things ordained by God are done; and in the second book of the same, Ordo is that by which God moves all things that are; and on the Epistle to the Galatians: confusion is the opposite of order. With regard to the Divine Office, therefore, whenever everything is done just as the Roman Church has ordained, and each thing assigned its place as a right judgment deems proper, then we have the ordo prescribed by the Roman Church. And where the contrary subsists, this is confusion. But the other nations and religious orders observe these things more exactly than the Franciscans. Therefore, etc.

    I will speak only briefly about a few things that come to mind, and (God willing) it will be more amply discussed in the writings coming from the City. [5]

    (3) Argument

    (a) General Observations: Sermons, Passions, and Propers

    First, with regard to things that are read and things that are sung, the Lateran and the other Roman churches have sermons and homilies, the Passions of the saints, and other such things in very great number. Likewise the ancient Roman antiphonaries contain [proper] chants for Saints Nicholas, Sebastian, and Maurice; and long responsories for Terce, Sext, and None in Lent; the Sunday Psalms divided for the Vigil [i.e Matins] in Easter Week, Easter Vespers ordered by Kyrie eleison [6], and several antiphons for the Sunday Benedicite, [7] and in several places variant antiphons and responsories.

    (b) Propers of the Saints

    (i) Omission of the Legenda and other ancient customs [8]

    Likewise in the proper Masses of the saints, we find their proper offices listed on their days, and many other things that are observed throughout the whole world in imitation of the Roman churches. But the Friars, for the sake of brevity and in imitation of the Papal chapel, have omitted or altered this custom. In their abbreviated use they usually read the Chronicles of Damasus on the saints, or something from the Pontificale. [9]

    (ii) Difficulties caused by the transfer of feasts. [10]

    Likewise, the Apostolic See assigns universal feasts of nine lessons, [11] and for local feasts permits the diocese to make additions, as in the proposition XVII above. And hence among all religious congregations and nations, there are few local feasts of nine lessons added beyond the universal ones, and many feasts of three lessons. [13]

    But today the friars observe the feast days of all their saints and the major octaves with nine readings, and none with three. As a result of this observance there is continuous disorder in their use and a great confusion caused by the feasts transferred from Sundays and during Octaves. [14] For out of any six places or persons that observe their use, hardly two observe the same nine-reading feast on the same day. [15] Therefore, they rarely say Matins. [16] They rarely observe the Seven (Penitential) Psalms [17] and other ferial practices, they entirely neglect Sacred Scripture in their office, [18] and they often omit the Office of the Dead. [19]

    From a Book of Hours written in 1533, the Resurrection of Lazarus at the beginning of Vespers of the Dead. (Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, Ms-640 réserve)
    (c) Confusion of the local and universal calendars: Adoption of local Roman feasts outside Rome.

    Further, the Apostolic See desires proportion (between local and universal feasts). Rome observes the (feasts of the) holy Roman Pontiffs and other local feasts of the Holy City; in the same way, others should observe their own local saints in their own local uses. Just as in Rome they are not held to observe our local saints, so neither are we held to observe theirs. But the Friars, contrary to this general custom, which is tacitly approved by this See, have added local Roman saints to their rite, such as Hyginius, Anicetus, Soter, Pius, Cletus, Marcellus, Eleutherius, John, Felix, Silverius, Anacletus, Victor, Innocent, Evaristus, Pontianus, and Melchiades, all Roman pontiffs; the same for Anastasius the martyr on St. Vincent’s day, whose monastery is situated beyond St. Paul’s; Gilbert the Confessor from England, and the Forty Holy Martyrs of Armenia, who have their church near the Colosseum; the Apparition of St. Michael of Apulia; the Martyr Elmo of Gaieta; Rufina and Secunda, virgins and martyrs of the Lateran; Nabor and Felix of Milan; Symphorosa with her seven sons, martyrs from Tivoli; Pastor, priest and confessor, who was a companion of Praxedes and Pudentiana, Roman virgins; Susanna, virgin and martyr, who has a church near the Baths (of Diocletian); the twelve brothers martyrs on St. Giles’ day, where Urban IV ordered that Giles be celebrated as a nine-lesson feast; Cerbonius, bishop of Populonia; Tryphon and Respicius, martyrs, whose church is held by the Augustinians; the feast of (Our Lady of) the Snows; the dedication of the three major basilicas; and Sabas the Abbot, whose abbey is located beyond the church of St. Alexis. It is remarkable that none of the aforesaid Roman feasts have propers in the Gregorian Office, which may be evidence that generally they were not celebrated.

    Besides what we have just mentioned, in various other calendars of the churches of the city, I have seen other Roman Pontiffs and saints celebrated in many places, as feasts of nine or three lessons, whom the Friars have omitted. In the ancient calendars of the city, moreover, though many local saints are assigned feasts of nine lessons, I have seen very many saints assigned only three lessons. In this, the books of the Friars Minor have been deficient from the beginning, for they did not note which saints are assigned nine lessons, so that they could observe all the others under three lessons. [20] Some of their books, which they admittedly do not use today, assign at most four or six saints’ feasts of three lessons, so that all the others are kept as feasts of nine lessons. And in this regard they oppose all other religious congregations and nations. But about this confusion regarding feasts of nine lessons I have written sufficiently in Proposition XVII above.

    The Apostolic See has ordered local custom to be observed on feast days of saints, but the Friars observe the contrary in the feasts of the aforementioned saints, as we noted in Proposition XVII.

    Further, if the Friars observe the feasts of their own order’s saints with major octaves, such as Francis, Anthony of Padua, and St. Clare, who are not found in the Roman office, when do they not leave the Romans some of their own local saints that the Franciscans are not bound to celebrate?

    (d) Invention of a “Common of Saints.”

    For the saints who have proper masses, Blessed Gregory wrote down in the Liber Gradualis and the Missal [21] the proper chants, epistles, and gospels to be observed on their days. Whenever these are repeated, he referred users to other pages, as the seculars’ books often do. The Friars’ books, however, contain a sort of mish-mash Common the Saints, composed from scratch by collecting all the introits by themselves, then the other parts by themselves. [22] Further, they have omitted the temporal and ferial Epistles and Gospels that are contained in Roman books. [23] They have also neglected to include genuflexions and many other ancient ceremonies, perhaps because they are not observed in the pope’s chapel. [24]

    (f) Imposition of the Franciscan Office in Rome. [25]

    Another point to be considered is the fact that Pope Nicholas III, a Roman from the family of the Orsini, who began his reign in the year of our Lord 1277 and constructed a palace at St. Peter’s, ordered the Antiphonaries, Graduals, Missals, and 50 other ancient office books to be removed from the churches of the city, and ordered that henceforth the same churches would use the Books and Breviaries of the Friars Minor, whose rule he also confirmed. This is why all the books in Rome today are new and Franciscan.

    (g) Disappearance of the ancient chant notation.

    Likewise, the ancient form of chant notation that is used by the Ambrosians and Germans, along with many other ecclesiastical observances, has been banished from the City. [26]

    (4) Conclusion

    Therefore, with regard to the Divine Office, we will observe the order of the Holy Roman Church if, disregarding the use of the Friars, we follow the sacred canons, authentic Scriptures, and the more universal local customs (consuetudines locorum generales) and, in points of doubt, the more ancient ones. And in other particulars let us follow the proportion mentioned above in the section on local saints.


    [1] Translation from the edition printed in Magna Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum, vol. 10, 1149A–1151D (Paris, 1654).
    [2] For example, the last significant abridgment of the Roman Office had been ordered by Gregory VII, as Guéranger explains in his Liturgical Institutions. This section also offers a historical overview of the period in question:

    “Les grandes affaires qui assiégeaient un Pape, au XI° siècle, les détails infinis d’administration dans lesquels il lui fallait entrer, ne permettaient plus de concilier avec les devoirs d’une si vaste sollicitude l’assistance exacte aux longs offices en usage dans les siècles précédents. Saint Grégoire VII abrégea l’ordre des prières et simplifia la Liturgie pour l’usage de la cour romaine. Il serait difficile aujourd’hui d’assigner d’une manière tout à fait précise la forme complète de l’office avant cette réduction; mais depuis lors, il est resté, à peu de chose près, ce qu’il était à la fin du XI° siècle” (Institutions Liturgigues, 281;

    “La réduction de l’office divin, accomplie par saint Grégoire VII, n’était destinée, dans le principe, qu’à la seule chapelle du Pape : par le fait, elle ne tarda pas à s’établir dans les diverses églises de Rome” (284).

    [3] According to Leo Cunibert Mohlberg, “Der Liber De Canonum Observantia,” in Radulph de Rivo: Der letzte Vertreter der altrömischen Liturgie (Louvain, 1911), 66–86, perhaps an Ordinarius a tempore Innocentii III recollectus, containing the office of the papal chapel.

    [4] Radulphus’s claim, here and throughout, is that the nations of Europe have received the Roman liturgical tradition directly through the books of the Ordines Romani, which represent the ancient local liturgy of the Roman church. Amalarius, the Micrologus, and others, he argues, are conscious of this reception. Further, a close study of the customs current in the Roman basilicas reveals that they retain many features in common with other European uses, while the papal rite has removed or abbreviated them.

    Throughout the De canonum observantia, he appeals to the OR along with papal decretals as a definitive authority on the Roman liturgical tradition. See, e.g., Proposition XXIII, which is a critical commentary on the Order of Mass as found in the OR, comparing it with other European uses.

    [5] He is referring to the collection of notes or longer works he compiled while resident in the city of Rome, from which he is composing this preliminary treatise. Unfortunately for us, the materials in question either never arrived, or have been lost. See Mohlberg, 78-86.

    [6] Around the 13th century, the old “glorious office” of Easter Vespers in Rome (as Amalarius dubs it) died out. It used to begin with an entrance procession to the singing of the Kyrie eleison.

    [7] Radulphus may mean that the Use he is describing has more than one antiphon for the Benedicite (i.e. the Tres pueri), changing from time to time within the season per annum.

    For instance, at Liège, seven Alleluias were sung over the whole Psalmody of Sunday Lauds from after Trinity to September. In October, they switched to three with just the first 3 psalms, then, “Tres in fornace ignis deambulabant et collaudabant Dominum Regem, canentes ex uno ore hymnum dicebant: Benedictus es Deus, alleluia.” In November, “Tres video viros ambulantes per medium ignis, et aspectus quarti, similtudo est filii Dei, alleluia.” The Roman Use only has one “Tres pueri jussu regis...”

    [8] Radulphus scolds the Franciscans for abbreviating the proper feasts of the saints in “many” ways,” in particular by (1) editorial changes and (2) omitting the ancient legenda. (1) Haymo seems to have rearranged the breviary so that the propers for Saints’ feasts are found in a newly-created Common of Saints containing all the propers in list form. (2) The breviary’s liturgical readings are no longer taken from the legenda, the ancient accounts of saints’ Acta. These legenda varied by region and were often very florid. The Franciscans substituted the Liber Pontificalis, a more sober book that gives short profiles of popes’ lives.

    [9] The Liber Pontificalis was attributed to St. Damasus. He may be giving two names for the same thing.

    [10] Dom Guéranger argues that Radulphus’ argument in this section, viz. that the Franciscans increased the number of nine-lesson feasts, is factually incorrect: “In the collection of liturgical documents edited by Blessed Giuseppe Maria Tommasi, there is a full antiphonary used in St Peter’s Basilica during the pontificate of Alexander III, which began in 1159. This antiphonary, which contains St Gregory VII’s reduced office, is almost entirely identical to the current Roman breviary (before the reform of 1911), which is both an abridgment of the Gregorian Antiphonary and the breviary of the Friars Minor. If, therefore, there are differences between the Roman books as they were in Amalarius’s day and the breviary of the Franciscans, they must be mainly attributed to the reductions made by St Gregory VII, and one must also keep in mind that the Metz Antiphonary contains many elements that are not of Roman origin.” (Institutions liturgiques, Vol. II)

    [11] “Feast of nine lessons” refers to a classification of feasts that does not correspond to the current system. These feasts of nine lessons were the old duplex & semiduplex feasts, now reduced to a single lesson. Feasts of three lessons were simplex feasts, now reduced to mere commemorations with no lessons.

    [13] Perhaps Radulphus cites this as a token of prudence, since the addition of nine-lesson feasts, which must be transferred, causes confusion in the calendar.

    [14] Apparently, according to the rubrics used by the Franciscans here, when a (nine lesson) feast falls on a Sunday or an Octave, it had to be transferred to the next free day (feria). This makes things confusing when there are many feast days having to be transferred. This problem persisted all the way up to 1910 with the reform of St Pius X. In 1908, for example, in most English dioceses St Mark’s had to be transferred from 25 April to 15 June because it fell in the Easter octave, and there was no feria till June (Cavendish, Paul. “An Introduction to the Reform of the Roman Breviary, 1911-13. Usus Antiquior. Vol. 2, no. 1, Jan. 2011, 32-60).”

    But the Tridentine rubrics must have been a bit different from the Franciscan use explained here, because in Tridentine rubrics if a nine-lesson feast falls on a Sunday it would be celebrated and the Sunday merely commemorated (with some exceptions for major Sundays). And likewise, if a feast fell on most octaves the feast would be celebrated & the day within the octave commemorated, except for the privileged octaves (Easter, Pentecost, Epiphany, & Corpus Christi).

    [15] He means that because so many feasts had to be transferred, it became confusing to know when they would end up being celebrated; hence the “great confusion” mentioned above. The pre-Pius X Roman breviary suffered from the same difficulty.

    [16] This is probably hyperbolic. Nevertheless, it is true that Matins is the hour most affected by feasts: all the lessons depend on what feast it is; given the confusion caused by transferring feasts, Radulphus says that the Franciscans tend to skip Matins altogether.

    [17] The Seven Penitential Psalms, said in choir after Lauds on ferial Fridays. Since the Friars seem to have had few ferias, they would seldom have said these psalms.

    [18] On feasts of nine lessons, all nine Matins lessons are of the feast (except in Lent), taking the place of the ferial and Sunday cycle of readings. Thus, on each of these days they miss out on the 3 ferial Matins lessons. Of course, the first nocturn (the first three lessons) in Matins of a feast of nine lessons is from the Bible: an epistle or Acts or Apocalypse, but one misses out on the ferial & Sunday Scripture reading cycle if one has too many feasts.

    [19] The Office of the Dead was said in addition to the day’s office on ferial Mondays.

    [20] The editors aren’t sure what is being argued here. Guéranger says that Radulphus argues that the Franciscans increased the number of double feasts (i.e. feasts of nine lessons), but Guéranger himself believes that Radulphus is wrong in blaming the Franciscans for this.

    [21] Gregory the Great, who wrote the Gradual.

    [22] He may be referring to something similar to the situation in the Graduale of the Novus Ordo Missae, where the Common lists a batch of introits, then a batch of graduals, etc., each to be chosen ad libitum.

    [23] Perhaps to the proper gospels and epistles assigned for ferial Wednesdays and Fridays, which appear in the oldest lectionaries but were not included in the missal of the Roman curia.

    [24] See chapter XXIII for particulars.

    [25] Haymo of Faversham (d. 1243), 4th General of the Franciscan Order, issued a revision of liturgical books, which Nicholas III imposed on the city of Rome.

    [26] “The Roman basilicas, perhaps as a result of Guido’s audience with John XIX, adopted the staff system (red F- and yellow c-line, letter-clefs and custos) and combined it with neumes perhaps best described as simplified Beneventan (for the literary text, however, Caroline not Beneventan script was employed). Compared to the classical forms of Beneventan notation, most of the special neumes and the variant forms of the basic signs are absent. This is the notation used to record the Old Roman chant repertory. It was not, however, restricted to Rome but also used in many churches in Lazio and Umbria (e.g. I-CT 12: facs. in PalMus, 1st ser., ii, 1891, pl.33; MGG1, iv, Tafel 34, pp.835–6) and was subsequently adopted for the earliest Franciscan chant books” (

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    In addition to a lot of beautiful images (the selection of which among so many is the most difficult part of preparing these,) we have a few special items in our final Corpus Christi photopost: celebrations in London for a new diocesan shrine, two first Masses, and a Missa coram Sanctissimo. As always, our thanks to all those who sent these in, participating in the good work of evangelzing through beauty!

    Corpus Christi - London, England
    The church had a week-long series of events to mark its official reopening, culminating in a Pontifical High Mass on Corpus Christi, celebrated by His Eminence Vincent Cardinal Nichols, Archbishop of Westminster, who officially established it as a Diocesan Shrine dedicated to the Blessed Sacrament. First Vespers and the vigil Mass were celebrated by His Excellency Robert Byrne, Auxiliary Bishop of Birmingham.

    First Vespers

     Vigil Mass

    Procession in Covent Garden celebrated by Cardinal Nichols

    Holy Innocents - New York City

    Blessed Trinity and St Patrick - Owego, New York

    Prince of Peace - Taylors, South Carolina

    Immaculate Heart of Mary Oratory - San Jose, California (ICKSP)
    The celebrant, Fr Andrew Rapaport, FSSP, was ordained in Nebraska on May 26. Because it was his first Mass at the Oratory, which he often attended when visiting relatives, he gave his First Mass Blessing at the altar rail afterwards.

    St Mark - Cranston, Rhode Island

    Our Lady of Mt Carmle - Littleton, Colorado (FSSP)

    St Francis de Sales - Benedict, Maryland

    St Mary - Norwalk, Connecticut 

    St Patrick - New Orleans, Louisiana
    Fr Aaron Williams was ordained to the priesthood on May 31 for the Diocese of Jackson, and the following Sunday celebrated his first Solemn Mass in the Extraordinary Form for the external solemnity of Corpus Christi, at which six children from the parish made their First Communion.

    St Mary - New Haven, Connecticut

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    The 2018 Summer Sacred Music Colloquium in Chicago will get off to a flying start with two amazing musical opportunities on June 24th. Starting at 12:30 pm, St John Cantius Church will celebrate the Nativity of St John the Baptist with the St Cecilia Choir and Orchestra. This is sure to be a particularly impressive liturgy, featuring Mozart’s Missa Brevis in F, Scande caeli limina, Alma Dei Creatoris, and Inter natos mulierum.

    Following the Mass, at 3:00 pm, St John’s will host the Gargoyle Brass in a special “French Reverence” concert. The concert program includes two of its own commissioned arrangements, Alexandre Guilmant'’s Symphony No. 1, Op. 42, and Maurce Ravel’s “Pavane for a Dead Princess,” both arranged for brass and organ by Craig Garner. Also on offer are Marcel Dupré’s “Poème héroïque” for brass, organ, and field drum, and “Symphony-Passion” for solo organ. Here is an excerpt from St John Cantius’ website about the performance:

    “Organists Corrado Cavalli and Jonathan Rudy will perform on the church’s Casavant Frères Organ Opus 1130, nicknamed ‘Tina Mae.’ The Romantic-style four-manual organ comprises 3,800 wood and metal pipes, the largest 16-feet tall, the smallest a few inches high. The unaltered 85-year-old instrument, relocated from an abandoned Chicago church where it had fallen into disuse, was restored and installed at St John Cantius in 2013.”

    Cavalli, a native of Turin, Italy, joined St John Cantius as organist in 2015. He received Master’s degrees in organ, choral conducting and choral composition from National Conservatory “Giuseppe Verdi” in Turin. Prior to taking the post at the Chicago church, he served as a church organist, music theory professor, and member of the Commission for Sacred Music for the Archdiocese in Turin. His awards include the 12th National Organ Competition’s Pinchi Prize and the Brownson Fellowship for his doctoral studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He has recorded for Sony Classical, among other labels.

    Rudy, Director of Musical Arts and Administration at St John Cantius, has performed across the U.S., including an appearance at the 2016 American Guild of Organists National Convention in Houston, Tex. He has recorded for the Pro Organo and Sony Classical labels. Among his other credits, he won First Prize and Audience Prize at the National Young Artists Competition in Organ Performance. He holds degrees from Indiana and Valparaiso Universities and is currently pursuing a doctorate in organ and sacred music at Indiana.

    There will be a special lunch at 2:00 PM available for $10.00. Tickets for the concert are $15.00 for adults, $10.00 for seniors/students, and $5.00 for children. Tickets can be purchased online at

    More information can be found at, or call 1-800-838-3006.

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